In May 2008, the transition to a federal democratic republic was declared, and Nepal, which had been in operation for nearly 240 years, was abolished. While moving toward the creation of a new country, there are also issues such as the integration of Maoist (Communist Party Maoist) soldiers (PLA soldiers) into the armed forces and the establishment of a new constitution, and the future of democratization and peacebuilding is international. It is attracting the attention of society. I will explain what kind of country Nepal is, based on the recent situation.
Nepal sandwiched between India and China
NepalSurrounded by the Himalayas known as the world’s highest peak “Everest” in the north and the Tarai Plain leading to India in the south, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a small country with a land area of about 1.8 times (147,000 square kilometers) that of Hokkaido. With a population of 26.43 million (estimated by the Central Statistics Bureau of the Government in 2006/2007), it is home to diverse ethnic groups such as Limbu, Lai, Taman, and Newar. Nepal, geographically located between India and China, is based on “non-aligned neutrality” and, combined with the snow-capped Himalayas, is like “Switzerland in Asia”. It may be said that there is something like that.
Maoists’ democratization movement
History of democratization in Nepal 1Then, in 1990, a large-scale people’s movement for democratization finally took place in various parts of Nepal, and the Panchayat regime collapsed. On the other hand, the activities of Maoists aiming at the abolition of the royal system and the realization of a secular state showed an increase, and in 1996, they started an armed struggle and took control of a wide area. During this time, King Birendra, who was on the throne, showed an understanding of democratization and was loved by the people, but a major incident occurred in which 10 royal families including this king and the queen were suddenly killed. That was the June 2001 royal mass shooting. According to a Nepalese government investigation, the incident killed the royal family who was thereby shooting a gun at the royal palace, and the prince himself died due to suicide, leaving the royal palace after the incident. Prince Gyanendra, the younger brother of King Birendra, who was safe and safe, became the king (the truth of the case is still unknown even after a while, and the aftermath continues, such as the establishment of a new investigation committee in 2009). .. However, the royal alternation due to this incident later strengthened the opposition of the Maoists and became a major impetus for the democratization movement to enter the final phase.
Birth of New Nepal and United Nations Political Mission in Nepal
History of democratization in Nepal with this as a boundary, peace negotiations began between Maoists, who were originally rebels, and the new administration, and in November 2006, a comprehensive peace agreement was signed. As a result, the 10-year civil war (with about 13,000 casualties) has finally come to an end. In 2007, Nepal took a major step toward democratization and peacebuilding, including the promulgation of a provisional constitution (January) agreed upon by the party government and Maoists, and the establishment of a provisional government (April). Meanwhile, the international community has established the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) to support such efforts by the Nepalese government. Since March 2007, Japan has also dispatched six SDF personnel as UNMIN military surveillance personnel (extended four dispatches so far) at seven PLA camps in Nepal, the Armed Forces Barracks, and UNMIN headquarters. I am in charge of managing weapons and monitoring soldiers.
Support for Nepal in Japan
Nepalese children, in addition, there are many other issues for Nepal’s nation-building, such as democratization, economic liberalization, poverty reduction, elimination of regional, caste, and ethnic disparities, infrastructure development, strengthening of governance of central and local governments, and industrial promotion. Japan started loan aid to Nepal in 1969 and is currently providing support focusing on local poverty reduction, democratization/peacebuilding support, and socio-economic infrastructure development. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1956, Japan and Nepal have built multifaceted and multi-layered friendly relations based on the exchange between the imperial family and the royal family (at that time) and Buddhist culture, but with India, China, and Western countries. As a different entity, the Nepalese show Japan a unique “familiarity”. In March 2009, Japan established a Cool Earth Partnership with Nepal and has begun to support climate change countermeasures. Japan will continue to provide steady support for democratization and peacebuilding in Nepal.