Sunday, 05 December, 2021

Nepal Democracy

Tag: democracy


Nepal has two governments – the Maoist rebels and the Seven-Party Coalition – which is not much of a boon to the population. However, on November 8, 2006, the two sides reached an agreement. The key question is whether that agreement and the decade of civil war that preceded it will ensure a policy that really takes into account the many poor in Nepal.

Nepal is going through turbulent times. For a long time, this pearl of the Himalayas seemed like a tourist fairytale where nothing really happened. That was not true then, but now even appearances are gone. In recent years, Nepal has been a pressure cooker where the Middle Ages collide with modernity. Nepal has -or since November 8: had it all: an army that mainly listens to the king, a multiparty democracy, a Maoist uprising that took control of large parts of the country in ten years, a flourishing civil society, a caste society with separate water taps for brahmins and untouchables. All those realities collide with each other and in recent years they collided head-on with each other. For example, in April 2006, the multiparty democracy, the Maoist rebellion, and part of civil society, through the street protest of more than 1 million people and 19 days of the general strike, worked together to force the king to relinquish the absolute power he had. two years earlier (again). The king stepped down and the government of seven parliamentary parties immediately declared that the king was no longer in command of the army. Ever since, Nepal has been a country with two governments, or better with two centers of power: the rebels and the coalition of seven parliamentary parties. Both levy taxes, pursue policies to a lesser extent, and sometimes still use violence towards each other or the citizens.

Double tax

When we travel there at the beginning of October, the discord can be felt everywhere in Nepal, in the countryside but also in Kathmandu. While we dock to the district Rasuwa -120 km north of the capital- our car is stopped by Maoists just in front of the town of Khalistan. They demand a tourist tax of 1000 rupees, about 25 euros, for access to the Langtang Valley National Park. The atmosphere is not really hostile. Bystanders, young and old, smile and wonder how we will react.

A little bit of policy

In Kathmandu, the Maoists are also involved in making (a little) policy. “They recently organized a people’s court in the center of the city,” said Govind Pandey, an adviser at the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry. ‘A man had paid a temporary employment agency 200,000 rupees (5000 euros) in exchange for a job in the Middle East. He moved to the Gulf but did not get a job there. Back in Kathmandu, he contacted the Maoists. They took the agency to their court and obliged it to repay the 200,000 rupees. Normally, the Ministry of Labor should care about such a thing, but Nepal is as good as a failed state. There is no legal certainty here, let alone a commercial or industrial policy. What do you want? There is a new government every ten months. This not only makes doing business difficult and risky; it helped create a breeding ground for the Maoists.’

5,500 minimums for a failing democracy

Just about everyone agrees that the democratic parties in Nepal have done very little of it. In 1990 (again) a popular movement after 20 years had put an end to the non-party Panchayat system, which gave the king absolute power. Several elections were held and no fewer than ten governments succeeded each other between 1990 and 2001. All too often, those democratically elected administrators were busy catching one another – at one point parliamentarians even started boycotting parliament – and enriching themselves The government did little about poverty in the Nepalese interior, although Nepal benefited from the economic boom in South Asia. This partly explains the success of the Communist Party Nepal (Maoist), one of the many communist splinter parties in Nepal. In their very first action, on February 13, 1996, in one of the poorest districts in the country, Maoists raided the Nepalese government’s agricultural development bank. They burned all loan notes, effectively relieving the peasants of their debt burden.

Where there is a weapon there is a law

Our guide, who is quite skeptical of the Maoists, finds Rikchen brave: “If the peace talks fail, he becomes a target for the army.” And the army barracks are located. 300 meters from Rikchen’s tea house. Rikchen admits that the Maoists in this region have no policies other than that gambling is not allowed. How can he enforce that? ‘People are afraid of us because of the image we already have.’ In Dhunche, local Maoist leader Kaisang Dhindup says his movement has 100 members in Dhunche alone. “There would be more if police and military didn’t scare people so much,” Dhindup argues that he would have 70 percent of the people behind him in elections. Nonsense, says a young man who studies tourism in Kathmandu: ‘Take their weapons and the Maoists are of little value here.”

Endgame?

How much support the Maoists really enjoy will have to be shown by-elections. And according to the agreement of 8 November, these must be completed before 15 June 2007. First, there will be an interim government of Maoists and the seven-party coalition preparing the elections. The elections will in turn lead to a Constituent Assembly, a demand that has been around for 60 years in Nepal. That meeting must then decide whether the country needs another king or not, and how democratically and socially the country will be run from now on. If you want more deep research about democracy, you can use ‘seo malaysia’ for faster results.


In May 2008, the transition to a federal democratic republic was declared, and Nepal, which had been in operation for nearly 240 years, was abolished. While moving toward the creation of a new country, there are also issues such as the integration of Maoist (Communist Party Maoist) soldiers (PLA soldiers) into the armed forces and the establishment of a new constitution, and the future of democratization and peacebuilding is international. It is attracting the attention of society. I will explain what kind of country Nepal is, based on the recent situation.

Nepal sandwiched between India and China
NepalSurrounded by the Himalayas known as the world’s highest peak “Everest” in the north and the Tarai Plain leading to India in the south, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a small country with a land area of ‚Äč‚Äčabout 1.8 times (147,000 square kilometers) that of Hokkaido. With a population of 26.43 million (estimated by the Central Statistics Bureau of the Government in 2006/2007), it is home to diverse ethnic groups such as Limbu, Lai, Taman, and Newar. Nepal, geographically located between India and China, is based on “non-aligned neutrality” and, combined with the snow-capped Himalayas, is like “Switzerland in Asia”. It may be said that there is something like that.

Maoists’ democratization movement
History of democratization in Nepal 1Then, in 1990, a large-scale people’s movement for democratization finally took place in various parts of Nepal, and the Panchayat regime collapsed. On the other hand, the activities of Maoists aiming at the abolition of the royal system and the realization of a secular state showed an increase, and in 1996, they started an armed struggle and took control of a wide area. During this time, King Birendra, who was on the throne, showed an understanding of democratization and was loved by the people, but a major incident occurred in which 10 royal families including this king and the queen were suddenly killed. That was the June 2001 royal mass shooting. According to a Nepalese government investigation, the incident killed the royal family who was thereby shooting a gun at the royal palace, and the prince himself died due to suicide, leaving the royal palace after the incident. Prince Gyanendra, the younger brother of King Birendra, who was safe and safe, became the king (the truth of the case is still unknown even after a while, and the aftermath continues, such as the establishment of a new investigation committee in 2009). .. However, the royal alternation due to this incident later strengthened the opposition of the Maoists and became a major impetus for the democratization movement to enter the final phase.

Birth of New Nepal and United Nations Political Mission in Nepal
History of democratization in Nepal with this as a boundary, peace negotiations began between Maoists, who were originally rebels, and the new administration, and in November 2006, a comprehensive peace agreement was signed. As a result, the 10-year civil war (with about 13,000 casualties) has finally come to an end. In 2007, Nepal took a major step toward democratization and peacebuilding, including the promulgation of a provisional constitution (January) agreed upon by the party government and Maoists, and the establishment of a provisional government (April). Meanwhile, the international community has established the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) to support such efforts by the Nepalese government. Since March 2007, Japan has also dispatched six SDF personnel as UNMIN military surveillance personnel (extended four dispatches so far) at seven PLA camps in Nepal, the Armed Forces Barracks, and UNMIN headquarters. I am in charge of managing weapons and monitoring soldiers.

Support for Nepal in Japan
Nepalese children, in addition, there are many other issues for Nepal’s nation-building, such as democratization, economic liberalization, poverty reduction, elimination of regional, caste, and ethnic disparities, infrastructure development, strengthening of governance of central and local governments, and industrial promotion such as towing-services.com. Japan started loan aid to Nepal in 1969 and is currently providing support focusing on local poverty reduction, democratization/peacebuilding support, and socio-economic infrastructure development. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1956, Japan and Nepal have built multifaceted and multi-layered friendly relations based on the exchange between the imperial family and the royal family (at that time) and Buddhist culture, but with India, China, and Western countries. As a different entity, the Nepalese show Japan a unique “familiarity”. In March 2009, Japan established a Cool Earth Partnership with Nepal and has begun to support climate change countermeasures. Japan will continue to provide steady support for democratization and peacebuilding in Nepal.


While in other countries, people are celebrating their freedom through light letters (lichtletters huren) and fireworks, this may not be the case in Nepal.

Democracy in Nepal – Movements

Hundreds of Nepalese took to the streets demanding that King Gyanendra re-enact multiparty democracy. The demonstrators closed their eyes and mouth and handcuffed them as a symbol of a restrained democracy. The rally took place peacefully and no one from the mass of demonstrators was detained by the security forces.

Raja Gyanendra arrested a number of Nepalese political figures and threw them into prison on January 1. In addition, he also declared the country in a state of emergency because the government was judged to have failed to crush the Maoist guerrillas.

The state of emergency was finally lifted on April 29 and most political figures have also been released. Previously Raja Gyanendra had promised to hold elections in the next three years

Nepal, Defending Democracy on the Roof of the World

In the war, the Nepali-Maoist Communist Party (CPN-M) staged a rebellion to overthrow the monarchy in the country. This war claimed 19 thousand lives, including civil society and armed forces. No doubt the aroma of this historic tragedy has re-emerged in Nepal’s parliamentary elections.

Sympathizers and supporters of Nepal’s two main political forces are expected to have an argument. It was also anticipated by deploying extra security in several constituencies.

In the Manang District, for example, the Nepalese military mobilized more than 600 of its soldiers to provide security. Manang only has 5,881 voters registered in Nepal’s Election Commission (KPU). The electoral tradition in Manang itself actually prefers kinship or clan over political ideology. Nevertheless, security is still carried out to avoid friction or clashes.

Shidi Gurung, one of the residents living in Manang, said he would choose candidates from the left alliance, the Communist Party of Nepal. This is because there is a kinship with the candidates promoted by the party.